Title IX

Sports & Education Equity Guaranteed


The height of the women’s civil rights movement in the United States brought along Title IX, a civil rights law that eliminated (or has yet to eliminate, depending on how you look at it) gender biases in all educational areas. Title IX, passed as part of the Education Amendments of 1972, states that “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.” Title IX addresses ten areas by law: access to higher education, athletics, career education, education for pregnant and parenting students, employment, earning environment, math and science, sexual harassment, standardize testing and technology (titleix.info).

Access to Higher Education

  • Before Title IX:

    • many colleges and universities did not admit women because it was believed women were too occupied with marriage and children.

  • After Title IX:  

    • women earn graduate and undergraduate degrees at higher rates, even in traditionally male dominated fields.

  • Why Title IX is still relevant and necessary:

    • Women are still earning less than 20% of engineering degrees due to the unwelcoming environment in the field

    • Women earn only about ⅕ of degrees in engineering, physics and computer sciences (titleix.info).  


  • Before Title IX:

    • One out of every seventy-seven girls played high school sports.

    • Female college athletes received only about 2% of a school’s athletic budget.

  • After Title IX:

    • There are more opportunities for women to compete at the high school and collegiate level, as well as elite levels such as the Olympics.

    • Playing sports has been positively correlated with staying in school and not dropping out, especially for girls of color.

  • Why Title IX is still relevant and necessary:

    • Women still only receive 1/3 of the funding, a clear violation of the law. Not only that, but Title IX fails to address racial equality under gender equality, with white girls participating in sports 10% more frequently than African-Americans, and over 20% more frequently with Asians and Latinas.

    • Because of the increase in money directed toward women’s sports programs, more men are drawn to coach women’s teams. In 2008 only 48% of coaches of women’s teams were women. Before Title IX, the number was more than 90%.

Sexual Harassment

  • Before Title IX:

    • Sexual comments, touching someone inappropriately, spreading rumors about someone’s sexual activities were dismissed as “boys will be boys” type of behavior.  

  • After Title IX:

    • Under Title IX, schools are required to prevent and address any form of sexual harassment whether it is student to student, teacher to student, or any other school officials.

  • Why Title IX is still relevant and necessary:

    • 8 in 10 students experience some form of harassment during some years!!!!

    • Common sexual harassment complaints STILL include sexual comments, jokes, gestures, or looks; spreading sexual rumors; intentionally brushing up against someone in a sexual way; flashing someone; claiming that a person is gay or lesbian. 

Education for Pregnant and Parenting Students  

  • Before Title IX:

    • Most pregnant students were expelled from school and not let back if they chose to continue with their pregnancy.

  • After Title IX:

    • Pregnant or parenting students or students who have been pregnant legally cannot be discriminated against or pushed around by the school system rules in any way.

    • The law recognizes the importance of education for young people’s economic independence for both themselves and their children.

  • Why Title IX is still relevant and necessary:

    • Many school districts still practice discrimination in regards to these young women, refusing to excuse their pregnancy-related absences or give them the needed make-up work, providing  and enacting policies to separate them from the rest of their classmates. This in one part of the reason that only 50% of teen mothers receive their high school diplomas.

Title IX accounted for 20% of the rise in women’s education, as well as 40% of the rise in employment for 25-34 old women. It also accounted for 1.5% of an increase in women in male-dominated fields and 8% higher wages for women; however, Title IX still has a way to go in fully achieving gender equality.




By Mira P (17), based upon an issue brief written by Torie and Julia

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